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hegemony_and_hypertext [2018/08/17 07:38]
morgan
hegemony_and_hypertext [2019/12/23 12:45]
morgan
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 =====Hegemony and Hypertext ===== =====Hegemony and Hypertext =====
- 
-=== Hegemony is designed into objects === 
  
   * The object is discursive.   * The object is discursive.
   * Designers must engage semiosis.   * Designers must engage semiosis.
   * Ideologies hide in tech writing.   * Ideologies hide in tech writing.
-  * *The UXis *the sales pitch*.+  * //The UX// is //the sales pitch//. 
 +  Hypertext is no escape.
  
 +{{ :englebart_display_system.png?600 |}}
 +
 +=== Hegemony is designed into objects ===
 Consider how a device or program carries or even enforces a hegemony or ideology. The object is discursive. It makes an argument, it makes a claim, it is grounded in particular warrants. The ideology is encoded in the object, which makes the values designed into the object invisible but decipherable. Feenberg calls this the technical code - cultural hegemony design into the object.  Consider how a device or program carries or even enforces a hegemony or ideology. The object is discursive. It makes an argument, it makes a claim, it is grounded in particular warrants. The ideology is encoded in the object, which makes the values designed into the object invisible but decipherable. Feenberg calls this the technical code - cultural hegemony design into the object. 
  
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 > Capitalist social and technical requirements are thus condensed in a "technological rationality" or a "regime of truth" which brings the construction and interpretation of technical systems into conformity with the requirements of a system of domination. I will call this phenomenon *the social code of technology* or, more briefly, the technical code of capitalism. Capitalist hegemony, on this account, is an effect of its code. > Capitalist social and technical requirements are thus condensed in a "technological rationality" or a "regime of truth" which brings the construction and interpretation of technical systems into conformity with the requirements of a system of domination. I will call this phenomenon *the social code of technology* or, more briefly, the technical code of capitalism. Capitalist hegemony, on this account, is an effect of its code.
  
-=== technical code and hegemony===+=== technical code and hegemony ===
  
 > To some, Feenberg may seem to be overstating his case, especially through the use of such loaded terms as "conformity" and "domination." Most of us, I think, would balk at the notion that we are controlled by our technologies or that we are all just pawns in a world ruled by evil capitalists. However, it is important to consider how Feenberg is using such terms and also how concepts such as "power" and "capitalism" are being framed within his argument. Similar to another philosopher, Michael Foucault, concepts such as power, capitalism, conformity and domination are not necessarily being employed as negative terms but rather as descriptive indicators of how the world works. Consider, for example, the concept of "power"as used to describe human relationships. To a large degree the manner in which we define and understand our relationships with one another is based on a balance of power: a mother has power over her child in a manner that she can control the child's circumstances in order to make sure that the child avoids injury, learns important skills and so forth. One could describe teacher-student or doctor-patient relationships on a similar basis. Even a simple friendship is structured by power relationships in which one friend may take on certain "roles" that grant him a measure of "authority" over activities and exchanges. In terms of technology, similar mechanisms are at work insomuch that "social purposes are 'embodied' in the • technology" and are, thus, more than just the practical results of a neutral tool: > To some, Feenberg may seem to be overstating his case, especially through the use of such loaded terms as "conformity" and "domination." Most of us, I think, would balk at the notion that we are controlled by our technologies or that we are all just pawns in a world ruled by evil capitalists. However, it is important to consider how Feenberg is using such terms and also how concepts such as "power" and "capitalism" are being framed within his argument. Similar to another philosopher, Michael Foucault, concepts such as power, capitalism, conformity and domination are not necessarily being employed as negative terms but rather as descriptive indicators of how the world works. Consider, for example, the concept of "power"as used to describe human relationships. To a large degree the manner in which we define and understand our relationships with one another is based on a balance of power: a mother has power over her child in a manner that she can control the child's circumstances in order to make sure that the child avoids injury, learns important skills and so forth. One could describe teacher-student or doctor-patient relationships on a similar basis. Even a simple friendship is structured by power relationships in which one friend may take on certain "roles" that grant him a measure of "authority" over activities and exchanges. In terms of technology, similar mechanisms are at work insomuch that "social purposes are 'embodied' in the • technology" and are, thus, more than just the practical results of a neutral tool:
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 === and hypertext === === and hypertext ===
  
-Hypertext doesn't (can't) escape encoding. That's clear to see (from today's distance) in [The Englebart Demo of NLS](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M5PgQS3ZBWA) (youtube). A commercial hegemony is encoded into the NLS from the beginning. +Hypertext doesn't (can't) escape encoding. That's clear to see (from today's distance) in [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M5PgQS3ZBWA) | The Englebart Demo of NLS]] (youtube). A commercial hegemony is encoded into the NLS from the beginning. 
  
 > What then are the technical codes of hypertext and more specifically what does the history of hypertext tell us about the meaning and potential direction of such codes? Think back to the topics covered in this chapter's brief historical overview: > What then are the technical codes of hypertext and more specifically what does the history of hypertext tell us about the meaning and potential direction of such codes? Think back to the topics covered in this chapter's brief historical overview:
  
-> 1.  The oral/literate distinction and the manner in which hypertext is often linked to certain characteristics of the oral tradition as well as compared to the revolutionary impact of the first printing press. +> 1. The oral/literate distinction and the manner in which hypertext is often linked to certain characteristics of the oral tradition as well as compared to the revolutionary impact of the first printing press. 
-2. The tendency to situate the creative use of hypertext within the experimental traditions of modem and postmodem literature. +2. The tendency to situate the creative use of hypertext within the experimental traditions of modem and postmodem literature. 
-3. Vannevar Bush and the memex. +3. Vannevar Bush and the memex. 
-4. The visions of pioneers such as Ted Nelson, Douglas Engelbart and Andries van Dam. +4. The visions of pioneers such as Ted Nelson, Douglas Engelbart and Andries van Dam. 
-5. Equally pioneering applications such as Intermedia, Storyspace, HyperCard and Mosaic. +5. Equally pioneering applications such as Intermedia, Storyspace, HyperCard and Mosaic. 
-6. The use of hypertext by publishers, educators and creative writers and how such individuals describe and characterize such use.+6. The use of hypertext by publishers, educators and creative writers and how such individuals describe and characterize such use.
  
 > In the first case hypertext as a technology is often linked to a particular historical trajectory that for the most part is progressive in nature. In other words, hypertext represents an important evolutionary development that is not only more appropriate for current conditions but also represents a marked improvement over previous technologies and practices.... > In the first case hypertext as a technology is often linked to a particular historical trajectory that for the most part is progressive in nature. In other words, hypertext represents an important evolutionary development that is not only more appropriate for current conditions but also represents a marked improvement over previous technologies and practices....
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 Hypertext cannot be the revolutionary mode we want to cast it as. The augmentation of human intellect is still focused on a hegemony of commerce that defeats itself. It's a bootstrap.  Hypertext cannot be the revolutionary mode we want to cast it as. The augmentation of human intellect is still focused on a hegemony of commerce that defeats itself. It's a bootstrap. 
  
 +Kitzmann, //Hypertext Handbook//, p 26-28.
  
-Kitzmann*Hypertext Handbook*p 26-28.+This means that when the hypertext is well-designed and the reader is willing[[the hypertext reader explores]]. Until then[[readers and writers of hypertext must resist]] the hegemony designed in. Another way of saying this is that hypertext makes necessary and possible [[A Rich Concept of the Reader]]
  
-see also *Designing the Media*+see also Murray, //Inventing the Medium//
  
hegemony_and_hypertext.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/23 12:51 by morgan